Gender en seksuele geaardheid in de wereldgeschiedenis

 

 

Sinds ongeveer 15 jaar houd ik me bezig met de wereldgeschiedenis en de koloniale geschiedenis op het gebied van genderbeleving en seksuele geaardheid. Voor het koloniale tijdperk was er wereldwijd sprake van zeer uiteenlopende diversiteit. 

Af en toe schreef ik een blog over dit onderwerp en kreeg uiteenlopende reacties. Ze varieerden van: we willen hier dolgraag voorlichting over geven, maar we hebben de deskundigen niet in huis (het COC) tot: dit is propaganda, onderdeel van een agenda om de wereld op het verkeerde spoor te zetten. (conspiracy denkers)

Dit is een complex onderwerp
Er zijn mensen die er om politieke of religieuze redenen tegen ageren.
Er zijn mensen die het onderwerp romantiseren of seksualiseren.
De meeste mensen vergelijken dit onderwerp eerst met het moderne LGBTQI+ leven, dat in deze tijd vooral een privé aangelegenheid is.

Een goed beeld van dit onderwerp kun je pas vormen als je je verdiept, want het gaat in veel culturen over zoveel meer. Het gaat over maatschappelijke rollen, spirituele rollen, werkzaamheden en verantwoordelijkheden, symboliek en rituelen en uiteraard liefde, relaties en seksualiteit.

Two-spirit commonly referred to gender identity, dress and traditional roles. The Cree terms napêw iskwêwisêhot and iskwêw ka napêwayat respectively reference men who dress like women and women who dress like men. The Siksika (Blackfoot) term aakíí’skassi described men who performed roles typically associated with women, such as basket weaving and pottery-making. Similarly, the Ktunaxa (Kootenay) term titqattek described females who took on roles traditionally characterized as masculine, including healing, hunting and warfare. One of the most well-known two-spirit people who identified as female was We’wha (1846–96) of New Mexico. She was referred to as lhaman or “mixed gender” in the Zuni language. In various Indigenous cultures, temperament, work roles, dress and lifestyle distinguished two-spirited individuals from men and women.

In some cases, the term referred specifically to sexuality, such as the Mi’kmaq phrase Geenumu Gessalagee, which means “he loves men.” However, two-spirit people did not necessarily see themselves as homosexual; sexual relationships between a two-spirit and a non-two-spirit were considered hetero-normative. While European colonists considered two-spirit people homosexual, and while the modern usage of the term can describe homosexuals, historically, two-spirit people did not so easily identify as either homosexual or heterosexual.

Two-spirit also referred to spiritual identity. In many Indigenous communities, two-spirited individuals were believed to have received supernatural intervention in the form of dreams and visions. As such, they often filled special spiritual roles in their communities as healers, shamans and ceremonial leaders (see Indigenous People: Religion and Spirituality). Historically, two-spirit people were also great sources of knowledge; they were keepers of traditions and tellers of creation stories.

Two-spirit was a complex role and identity that modern-day two-spirited individuals can use to reclaim traditions related to gender identity, sexual preference, spiritual identity and traditional roles.

Verder lezen op de website van The Canadian Encyclopedia

Meer informatie: https://guides.library.manoa.hawaii.edu/Pacificsexualidentity 


This is a list of terms from the Pacific region. These terms do not always have direct equivalencies with English terms. The usage of  these terms are evolving and their meaning may differ depending on the person.

Elke cultuur gaf op een andere manier vorm aan de samenleving en de gebruiken. Het is dus belangrijk om zichtbaar te maken dat elke cultuur een eigen verhaal heeft. Dit is een complex onderwerp dat zorgvuldige uitleg verdient. Daarom doe ik alleen met dit onderwerp wat ik het allerliefste doe:

  • Video’s: Ik geef de mensen uit de diverse culturen de ruimte om hun eigen verhaal te vertellen.
  • Links: Je vindt hier links naar deskundige informatie van wetenschappers en experts met roots in de betreffende culturen.

Dit onderwerp kun je niet even scannen. Hier moet je echt voor gaan zitten. In elke video, en achter elke link vind je een inzichtgevend persoonlijk verhaal en/of expertise over de wereldgeschiedenis op het gebied van seksuele geaardheid en gender identiteit.

Noord Amerika

Voor de LGBTI gemeenschap had men in het verre verleden heel diverse benamingen en culturele gebruiken, (sterk) variërend per tribe. Two spirit is in Noord Amerika en Canada de moderne verzamelnaam.

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Specialized work roles.
Male and female two spirit people were typically described in terms of their preference for and achievements in the work of the “opposite” sex or in activities specific to their role. Two spirit individuals were experts in traditional arts – such as pottery making, basket weaving, and the manufacture and decoration of items made from leather. Among the Navajo, two spirit males often became weavers, usually women and men’s work, as well as healers, which was a male role. By combining these activities, they were often among the wealthier members of the tribe. Two spirit females engaged in activities such as hunting and warfare, and became leaders in war and even chiefs.
Gender variation. A variety of other traits distinguished two spirit people from men and women, including temperament, dress, lifestyle, and social roles.

Spiritual sanction.
Two spirit identity was widely believed to be the result of supernatural intervention in the form of visions or dreams and sanctioned by tribal mythology. In many tribes, two spirit people filled special religious roles as healers, shamans, and ceremonial leaders.

Same-sex relations.
Two spirit people typically formed sexual and emotional relationships with non-two spirit members of their own sex, forming both short- and long-term relationships. Among the Lakota, Mohave, Crow, Cheyenne, and others, two spirit people were believed to be lucky in love, and able to bestow this luck on others.

Naar de website

The ‘two-spirit’ people of indigenous North Americans – The Guardian

Native Americans have often held intersex, androgynous people, feminine males and masculine females in high respect. The most common term to define such persons today is to refer to them as “two-spirit” people, but in the past feminine males were sometimes referred to as “berdache” by early French explorers in North America, who adapted a Persian word “bardaj”, meaning an intimate male friend. Because these androgynous males were commonly married to a masculine man, or had sex with men, and the masculine females had feminine women as wives, the term berdache had a clear homosexual connotation. Both the Spanish settlers in Latin America and the English colonists in North America condemned them as “sodomites”.

Rather than emphasising the homosexuality of these persons, however, many Native Americans focused on their spiritual gifts. American Indian traditionalists, even today, tend to see a person’s basic character as a reflection of their spirit. Since everything that exists is thought to come from the spirit world, androgynous or transgender persons are seen as doubly blessed, having both the spirit of a man and the spirit of a woman. Thus, they are honoured for having two spirits, and are seen as more spiritually gifted than the typical masculine male or feminine female.

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NIEUW ZEELAND
Takatāpui is a Māori (indigenous people of Aotearoa New Zealand) word, historically meaning ‘intimate companion of the same sex’. The term was reclaimed in the 1980s and used by individuals who were gay, lesbian, bisexual, transgender, intersex or part of the rainbow community.

The use of ‘takatāpui’ as an identity is a response to western ideas of sex, sexuality and gender, and emphasises ones identity as Māori as inextricably linked to their gender identity or sexuality.

WHERE DOES ‘TAKATĀPUI’ COME FROM? Important to the notion that practices other than heterosexuality and being cisgender were accepted in traditional Māori society pre-colonisation, is the existence of the word takatāpui in one of the earliest Māori dictionaries – The Dictionary of Māori Language – compiled by missionary Herbert Williams in 1832. In this text, the definition is noted as “intimate companion of the same sex”.

Naar de website

Since the early 1980s, Māori who are whakawāhine, tangata ira tāne, lesbian, gay, bisexual, trans, intersex or queer have increasingly adopted the identity of ‘takatāpui’ – a traditional Māori term meaning ‘intimate companion of the same sex.’

As the first study on takatāpui identity and well-being, this is fashioned as a Whāriki Takatāpui; a woven mat which lays the foundation for future research and advocacy.

Naar het onderzoek (PDF)

David A. B. Murray, Antropoloog

This paper is an introductory investigation into the complex relations between sexuality, language and Māori indigenous identity in Aotearoa/New Zealand.

Through an examination of the development and proliferation of a Māori language term (takatāpui) for “gay” and “lesbian” Māori over the past 20 years, I analyze the socio-political implications of language use in identity discourses and the multiple interpretative possibilities that may be generated when a subaltern or minority language is utilized in relation to a minority identification located in an Anglo-postcolonial society.

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POLYNESIË: HAWAI'I, TONGA, SAMOA EN DE COOK ISLANDS

There are diverse and constantly shifting expressions of gender identity and sexual identity in the Pacific island region. Identity expressions that would be defined as homosexual or transgendered using western vocabulary often fulfilled important and well-established cultural or ritual functions within various parts of the Pacific.

Contact with Europeans and the subsequent colonization of the region often resulted in rejection or suppression of these identities. More recently these identities are being reclaimed and redefined, responding to both traditional and external influences and expectations.

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A place in the middle is the true story of a young girl in Hawaiʻi who dreams of leading the boys-only hula group at her school, and a teacher who empowers her through traditional culture.

This kid-friendly educational film is a great way to get students thinking and talking about the values of diversity and inclusion, the power of knowing your heritage, and how to prevent bullying by creating a school climate of aloha – from their own point of view.

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CANADA & ALASKA
De website van de documentaire Two soft things, Two hard things.

Naar de website


Voor de LGBTI gemeenschap had men in het verre verleden heel diverse benamingen en culturele gebruiken, (sterk) variërend per tribe. Two spirit people is in Noord Amerika en Canada de moderne verzamelnaam.

Quote
The Cree terms napêw iskwêwisêhot and iskwêw ka napêwayat respectively reference men who dress like women and women who dress like men. The Siksika (Blackfoot) term aakíí’skassi described men who performed roles typically associated with women, such as basket weaving and pottery-making. Similarly, the Ktunaxa (Kootenay) term titqattek described females who took on roles traditionally characterized as masculine, including healing, hunting and warfare.

In some cases, the term referred specifically to sexuality, such as the Mi’kmaq phrase Geenumu Gessalagee, which means “he loves men.” However, two-spirit people did not necessarily see themselves as homosexual; sexual relationships between a two-spirit and a non-two-spirit were considered hetero-normative.

While European colonists considered two-spirit people homosexual, and while the modern usage of the term can describe homosexuals, historically, two-spirit people did not so easily identify as either homosexual or heterosexual.

Verder lezen

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SCANDINAVIE

Long before the concept of national borders existed, the Sami people of arctic Europe inhabited the regions now known as Norway, Sweden, Finland and the Russian Kola Peninsula. They led a nomadic life—hunting, fishing and following the seasonal migration of wild reindeer—and their culture and spirituality developed around their relationship with the land and its resources.

The Sami culture survives today, despite centuries of repression from the region’s four modern nations.

Naar de website

This thesis is an investigation of the silence of queerness in Sápmi, and is empirically based on three fieldworks and eight interviews. The thesis will question the silence within a historical perspective, and explore different aspects of the silence in Sápmi today.

The main focus will be on queer Sami in Norway, but will also voice queer Sami from Sweden and Finland. I will therefore include a discussion on the silence in the queer community in Norway, but the main focus will be on the silence in Sápmi. My research will also look into what was revealed when the queer Sami in this thesis break the silence.

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INDONESIE
The Bugis are the largest ethnic group in South Sulawesi, numbering around three million people. Most Bugis are Muslim, but there are many pre-Islamic rituals that continue to be honored in Bugis culture, which include distinct views of gender and sexuality.

Their language offers five terms referencing various combinations of sex, gender and sexuality: makkunrai (“female women”), oroani (“male men”), calalai (“female men”), calabai (“male women”) and bissu (“transgender priests”). These definitions are not exact, but suffice.

During the early part of my Ph.D. research, I was talking with a man who, despite having no formal education, was a critical social thinker. As I was puzzling about how Bugis might conceptualize sex, gender and sexuality, he pointed out to me that I was mistaken in thinking that there were just two discrete sexes, female and male.

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Diverse culturen

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In de Nederlandse media

Het online magazine Oneworld.nl besteedde de afgelopen jaren diverse keren aandacht aan dit onderwerp.

Een van de meest schadelijke dingen die de kolonisatie heeft gebracht in Afrika: zogenaamde verschillen tussen man en vrouw. Althans, dat is wat de Nigeriaanse socioloog Oyèrónké Oyèwùmí stelt: vóór het koloniale tijdperk was de West-Nigeriaanse bevolking genderloos.

Naar het artikel

Dat biologie mensen netjes in twee groepen verdeelt – die met penis, en die met borsten – is niet zo vanzelfsprekend als het lijkt. En als het op gender aankomt, is dat het al helemaal niet, betoogt Emmeke Bos.

Naar het artikel

Niet-westerse culturen benaderen gender al eeuwenlang op de meest uiteenlopende manieren. Toch worden moderne ideeën rond genderdiversiteit vooral toegeschreven aan westerse vrijheden. Olave Nduwanje bespreekt dit met twee makers uit Thailand en Zuid-Afrika.

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Het idee dat er maar twee genders zijn is gewelddadige geschiedvervalsing, schrijft Dmitri Derodel. Genderdiversiteit was in heel veel culturen normaal, maar werd door witte overheersers de kop ingedrukt. ‘Het westerse genderbinaire systeem is doordrenkt van bloed.’

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Dino Suhonic schrijft voor Nieuwwij.nl. Dino is queer moslim en publiceert over diverse gender-gerelateerde vraagstukken.

Gesluierde of zelfs als slavinnen verhandelde vrouwen, steniging van overspelige koppels, homo’s die van hoge gebouwen worden gegooid. ‘De islam’ heeft vandaag de dag de reputatie buitengewoon repressief te zijn ten aanzien van alles wat met seks te maken heeft. Dit beeld is echter verrassend recent: een eeuw geleden werd de islamitische wereld juist als losbandig en sensueel gezien, en zelfs als ronduit verwijfd.

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Op Nieuwwij.nl is al een tijdje een briefwisseling gaande tussen Wielie Elhorst en Dino Suhonic over het thema ‘religie en homoseksualiteit’. Wielie Elhorst is predikant in algemene dienst van de PKN, oud-voorzitter van het LKP, de landelijke koepelorganisatie van de christelijke LBHT-beweging, organisator van de IDAHOT-wake, de Gay Pride Kerkdienst en de Pink Christmas Kerkdienst. Dino Suhonic is docent, coördinator van Stichting Maruf en redactielid van Nieuwemoskee.nl. 

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In Nederland wordt er steeds meer gesproken over genderneutraliteit. Veel pre-koloniale Afrikaanse culturen kennen het concept gender niet. Oyewumi behoort tot de Yoruba-bevolking in Nigeria. In de Yoruba-taal zijn er geen woorden voor zoon, dochter, jongen of meisje. Dat is ook zo in het Lingala, één van de talen die in Congo wordt gesproken. In Afrikaanse culturen is het principe van senioriteit belangrijk. Het eerste wat je doet in sociale interacties is vaststellen wie ouder en jonger is. Dat bepaalt hoe je de ander aanspreekt.

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Gendervariatie komt in allerlei vormen voor bij inheemse culturen over de hele wereld; niet alleen in Amerika, maar ook in heel Afrika, in China, Japan, Siberië, Nieuw Zeeland, Polynesië etc. Bij sommige volkeren kende men een ‘derde geslacht’, bij anderen vier geslachten/genders: man, vrouw-man, man-vrouw en vrouw. Zelfs in Europa is het een bekend verschijnsel geweest, tot vér na de Griekse beschaving.

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In de buitenlandse media

In June, Botswana overturned colonial-era laws which criminalised homosexuality, with the judge, Michael Leburu, declaring that “the anti-sodomy laws are a British import” and were developed “without the consultation of local peoples”.

It was viewed as a massive success and a historic moment across the continent. Despite this the more than half of the countries in Africa outlaw homosexuality, with four enforcing the death penalty. At a time where we see more and more countries worldwide becoming progressive with regard to LGBT rights, why does Africa still maintain their anti-LGBT stance? Is homosexuality, rather than homophobia a “western import” as claimed by Ugandan president Yoweri Museveni?

Of course not. There is a direct correlation between countries which belong to the Commonwealth, and therefore have previously been under British rule, and countries that still have homophobic biphobic and/or transphobic legislature in their constitutions. 25 per cent of the world’s population (2.4 billion people) currently live in a country belonging to the Commonwealth, however they make up a disproportionately large 50 per cent of countries that still criminalise homosexuality. 

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The Commonwealth consists of 53 member states and 80 organisations that exist in locations around the globe and work together to promote democracy and peace. Over 40% of the world’s young people (640 million out of 1.8 billion) are members of the Commonwealth. Its countries include 19 in the African continent, seven in Asia, three in Europe, and 11 in the Pacific – all locations where the footprint of colonialism has been stamped, and where the legacy of the imperialist laws relating to same-sex relations are still being experienced. As Chimamanda Ngozi Adichie, in conversation with Reni Eddo-Lodge, comments: colonialism is not historical, it is contemporary and the effects are present everyday.

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BLOOMBERG –

The Cherokee Nation, one of the largest registered Native American tribes in the U.S., has officially decided to recognize same-sex marriage. The tribe, as a separate sovereign, isn’t bound by the U.S. Supreme Court’s landmark 2015 gay-marriage decision, Obergefell v. Hodges. But its judgment relies in part on evidence of historical recognition of same-sex relationships among Cherokees — a basis for contemporary gay rights that is different from, and in some ways deeper than, the equality and dignity rationales that the Supreme Court used.

Naar het artikel

LGBT themes in mythology occur in mythologies and religious narratives that include stories of romantic affection or sexuality between figures of the same sex or that feature divine actions that result in changes in gender. These myths are considered by some modern queer scholars to be forms of lesbiangaybisexual, or transgender (LGBT) expression, and modern conceptions of sexuality and gender have been retroactively applied to them. Many mythologies ascribe homosexuality and gender fluidity in humans to the action of gods or of other supernatural interventions.

The alleged presence of LGBT themes in mythologies has become the subject of intense study. The application of gender studies and queer theory to non-Western mythic tradition is less developed, but has grown since the end of the twentieth century.[1] Myths often include being gay, bisexual, or transgender as symbols for sacred or mythic experiences.[2] Devdutt Pattanaik argues that myths “capture the collective unconsciousness of a people”, and that this means they reflect deep-rooted beliefs[3] about variant sexualities that may be at odds with repressive social mores.[4]

 


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