Gender en seksuele geaardheid in de wereldgeschiedenis

Sinds ongeveer 15 jaar houd ik me bezig met de wereldgeschiedenis en de koloniale geschiedenis op het gebied van genderbeleving en seksuele geaardheid. Voor het koloniale tijdperk was er wereldwijd sprake van zeer uiteenlopende diversiteit.

Af en toe schreef ik een blog over dit onderwerp en kreeg uiteenlopende reacties. Ze varieerden van: we willen hier dolgraag voorlichting over geven, maar we hebben de deskundigen niet in huis (het COC) tot: dit is propaganda, onderdeel van een agenda om de wereld op het verkeerde spoor te zetten. (conspiracy denkers)

Dit is een complex onderwerp
Er zijn mensen die er om politieke of religieuze redenen tegen ageren.
Er zijn mensen die het onderwerp romantiseren of seksualiseren.
De meeste mensen vergelijken dit onderwerp eerst met het moderne LGBTI leven, dat een privéaangelegenheid is.

Een goed beeld van dit onderwerp kun je pas vormen als je je verdiept, want het gaat in veel culturen over zoveel meer. Het gaat over maatschappelijke rollen, spirituele rollen, werkzaamheden en verantwoordelijkheden, symboliek en rituelen. Relaties en seksualiteit maken daar ook deel van uit, maar als deel van het geheel, niet als hoofdpunt.

Omdat De Gewone Vrouw geen politieke of activistische website is doe ik alleen nog met dit onderwerp wat ik het allerliefste doe:

  • Ik geef de mensen uit de diverse culturen de ruimte om hun eigen verhaal te vertellen.
  • Je vindt hier links naar deskundige informatie van wetenschappers en experts met roots in de betreffende culturen.


Takatāpui is a Māori (indigenous people of Aotearoa New Zealand) word, historically meaning ‘intimate companion of the same sex’. The term was reclaimed in the 1980s and used by individuals who were gay, lesbian, bisexual, transgender, intersex or part of the rainbow community.

The use of ‘takatāpui’ as an identity is a response to western ideas of sex, sexuality and gender, and emphasises ones identity as Māori as inextricably linked to their gender identity or sexuality.

WHERE DOES ‘TAKATĀPUI’ COME FROM? Important to the notion that practices other than heterosexuality and being cisgender were accepted in traditional Māori society pre-colonisation, is the existence of the word takatāpui in one of the earliest Māori dictionaries – The Dictionary of Māori Language – compiled by missionary Herbert Williams in 1832. In this text, the definition is noted as “intimate companion of the same sex”.

Naar de website

Since the early 1980s, Māori who are whakawāhine, tangata ira tāne, lesbian, gay, bisexual, trans, intersex or queer have increasingly adopted the identity of ‘takatāpui’ – a traditional Māori term meaning ‘intimate companion of the same sex.’

As the first study on takatāpui identity and well-being, this is fashioned as a Whāriki Takatāpui; a woven mat which lays the foundation for future research and advocacy.

Naar het onderzoek (PDF)

David A. B. Murray, Antropoloog

This paper is an introductory investigation into the complex relations between sexuality, language and Māori indigenous identity in Aotearoa/New Zealand.

Through an examination of the development and proliferation of a Māori language term (takatāpui) for “gay” and “lesbian” Māori over the past 20 years, I analyze the socio-political implications of language use in identity discourses and the multiple interpretative possibilities that may be generated when a subaltern or minority language is utilized in relation to a minority identification located in an Anglo-postcolonial society.

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There are diverse and constantly shifting expressions of gender identity and sexual identity in the Pacific island region. Identity expressions that would be defined as homosexual or transgendered using western vocabulary often fulfilled important and well-established cultural or ritual functions within various parts of the Pacific.

Contact with Europeans and the subsequent colonization of the region often resulted in rejection or suppression of these identities. More recently these identities are being reclaimed and redefined, responding to both traditional and external influences and expectations.

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A place in the middle is the true story of a young girl in Hawaiʻi who dreams of leading the boys-only hula group at her school, and a teacher who empowers her through traditional culture.

This kid-friendly educational film is a great way to get students thinking and talking about the values of diversity and inclusion, the power of knowing your heritage, and how to prevent bullying by creating a school climate of aloha – from their own point of view.

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De website van de documentaire Two soft things, Two hard things.

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Voor de LGBTI gemeenschap had men in het verre verleden heel diverse benamingen en culturele gebruiken, (sterk) variërend per tribe. Two spirit people is in Noord Amerika en Canada de moderne verzamelnaam.

The Cree terms napêw iskwêwisêhot and iskwêw ka napêwayat respectively reference men who dress like women and women who dress like men. The Siksika (Blackfoot) term aakíí’skassi described men who performed roles typically associated with women, such as basket weaving and pottery-making. Similarly, the Ktunaxa (Kootenay) term titqattek described females who took on roles traditionally characterized as masculine, including healing, hunting and warfare.

In some cases, the term referred specifically to sexuality, such as the Mi’kmaq phrase Geenumu Gessalagee, which means “he loves men.” However, two-spirit people did not necessarily see themselves as homosexual; sexual relationships between a two-spirit and a non-two-spirit were considered hetero-normative.

While European colonists considered two-spirit people homosexual, and while the modern usage of the term can describe homosexuals, historically, two-spirit people did not so easily identify as either homosexual or heterosexual.

Verder lezen

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Voor de LGBTI gemeenschap had men in het verre verleden heel diverse benamingen en culturele gebruiken, (sterk) variërend per tribe. Two spirit is in Noord Amerika en Canada de moderne verzamelnaam.

Specialized work roles.
Male and female two spirit people were typically described in terms of their preference for and achievements in the work of the “opposite” sex or in activities specific to their role. Two spirit individuals were experts in traditional arts – such as pottery making, basket weaving, and the manufacture and decoration of items made from leather. Among the Navajo, two spirit males often became weavers, usually women and men’s work, as well as healers, which was a male role. By combining these activities, they were often among the wealthier members of the tribe. Two spirit females engaged in activities such as hunting and warfare, and became leaders in war and even chiefs.
Gender variation. A variety of other traits distinguished two spirit people from men and women, including temperament, dress, lifestyle, and social roles.

Spiritual sanction.
Two spirit identity was widely believed to be the result of supernatural intervention in the form of visions or dreams and sanctioned by tribal mythology. In many tribes, two spirit people filled special religious roles as healers, shamans, and ceremonial leaders.

Same-sex relations.
Two spirit people typically formed sexual and emotional relationships with non-two spirit members of their own sex, forming both short- and long-term relationships. Among the Lakota, Mohave, Crow, Cheyenne, and others, two spirit people were believed to be lucky in love, and able to bestow this luck on others.


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The ‘two-spirit’ people of indigenous North Americans – The Guardian

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Long before the concept of national borders existed, the Sami people of arctic Europe inhabited the regions now known as Norway, Sweden, Finland and the Russian Kola Peninsula. They led a nomadic life—hunting, fishing and following the seasonal migration of wild reindeer—and their culture and spirituality developed around their relationship with the land and its resources.

The Sami culture survives today, despite centuries of repression from the region’s four modern nations.

Naar de website

This thesis is an investigation of the silence of queerness in Sápmi, and is empirically based on three fieldworks and eight interviews. The thesis will question the silence within a historical perspective, and explore different aspects of the silence in Sápmi today.

The main focus will be on queer Sami in Norway, but will also voice queer Sami from Sweden and Finland. I will therefore include a discussion on the silence in the queer community in Norway, but the main focus will be on the silence in Sápmi. My research will also look into what was revealed when the queer Sami in this thesis break the silence.

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The Bugis are the largest ethnic group in South Sulawesi, numbering around three million people. Most Bugis are Muslim, but there are many pre-Islamic rituals that continue to be honored in Bugis culture, which include distinct views of gender and sexuality.

Their language offers five terms referencing various combinations of sex, gender and sexuality: makkunrai (“female women”), oroani (“male men”), calalai (“female men”), calabai (“male women”) and bissu (“transgender priests”). These definitions are not exact, but suffice.

During the early part of my Ph.D. research, I was talking with a man who, despite having no formal education, was a critical social thinker. As I was puzzling about how Bugis might conceptualize sex, gender and sexuality, he pointed out to me that I was mistaken in thinking that there were just two discrete sexes, female and male.

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